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    (Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2022-02) Martinus Nangwasha; Njuguna Waitherero
    This article aimed to explore the concept of the human authentic living. It stresses on the why acting authentically promotes personal well-being and overall fulfilment which then leads to stronger interpersonal relationships. The article was motivated by the growing nature of inauthentic life-styles that most people are living, especially in contemporary times. The inauthentic life style has affected people badly because it causes them to stay away from the truth and true image of themselves. The common definition of authenticity is to live one’s life according to one’s beliefs, goals and values. One has to identify his or her important values in life, commit to them and work according to them. Authenticity means that one is true to one’s principles and values despite the pressure one has to endure in life. When one is true to oneself, he or she has much trust on own judgements and decisions. When one trusts oneself and does what is right, one can realize full potential in life. Heideggerian phenomenology and Sartrean existentialism reveal that the role played by authenticity in prompting the adoption of an authentic attitude, liberates one. It gives one the freedom to break free of learnt behavior and rise to the highest self. Being authentic gives one the confidence to see oneself for who he or she truly is, and bask in one’s uniqueness. Consequently, the importance of authenticity for self and society is immense. This article established that authenticity is positively related to life satisfaction and physical well-being. Also, acting authentically promotes personal well-being and overall fulfilment, and leads to stronger interpersonal relationships. The point of departure is that the term “authenticity” refers to being real, genuine, or true. This research was carried out in Library based on philosophical literature. Interpretivism research methodology was employed. Interpretivism is a branch of epistemology that is focused on the assessment of the differences between human as social factors
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    Tea Drinking Attitude and Tea Addiction Symptoms among Kenyans
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2022-05) Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD; Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D
    Kenyans are known to consume lots of tea. This study investigated Kenyans’ tea drinking attitude and the possible traces of tea addiction. A correlation design was employed by using an online questionnaire to obtain information from 335 respondents who participated through voluntary sampling. The data were analyzed using descriptive inferential statistics. It was found that majority of Kenyans (95.3%) are tea drinkers with about 76.4% moderately consuming 1 to 3 cups of tea daily in the morning hours. There was no gender disparity in tea consumption. Addiction symptoms were experienced by 41% of Kenyan tea drinkers who experienced withdrawal symptoms such headache, tiredness, and disorientation, 49.1% craving for tea, 16.5% unable to stop drinking tea, and 36.9% feel stimulated by drinking tea. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of teacups consumed per day and addiction symptoms at Pearson correlation coefficient r (335) = .355, p < .001. It is recommended that while tea drinking is legal, those who experience loss of control over tea drinking and withdrawal symptoms should seek professional help.
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    Social Networking Sites and Their Influence on the Self Esteem of Adolescents in Embu County, Kenya
    (Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research (JEPER), 2015-01) Virginia W. Nyagah; Dr. Asatsa Stephen; Dr. Jonathan Muema Mwania
    As technology improves and advances, social networking sites have an even bigger impact on society and human relationships, both positive and negative. Social networking sites have influence on teenagers in the way they develop socially. The way teenagers are connected to these global SNSs is both a frightening prospect for parents and educators and an intriguing area for social science research. Further there is no comprehensive knowledge of the activities adolescents do on these sites as well as how they impact their social life. This study therefore sought to specifically investigate the influence of social networking sites on the self-esteem of adolescents in secondary schools in Embu County Kenya. The researcher adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population of the respondents for this research was secondary school students and teachers in Embu County. Random sampling technique was used to select five boarding schools for the study sample. From each school, fifteen students and three teachers was selected for each unit of analysis to make a total sample of one fifty students and 15 teachers selected from the target population. The data collection instruments designed for the researches were questionnaires, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and interview schedules. The questionnaires and Rosenberg self-esteem scale was designed for the students while interview guides were for teachers. Data collected was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The study concluded that almost all the students use social network sites, therefore that social networking is very common among students who are in secondary schools. Facebook topped the list of the most common social site used by secondary schools students. The study further concludes that various students have different motivation for visiting the social networking sites. The study further concluded that social networking influence the self-esteem and psychological wellbeing of secondary school student. The study recommends that secondary schools students should be given guidance and counseling on how to positively utilize the social networking sites to their advantage and not to have a negative impact on their self-esteem.
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    Relationship between Family Cohesion and Teenage Sexual Behavior in Public Secondary Schools in Kajiado County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2021-10) Juliana Anyango Nyaguti; Stephen Asatsa (PhD); Josephine Muthami (PhD)
    This research aimed at examining the relationship between family functioning and teenagers' sexual behavioral patterns amongst students in public secondary schools in Kajiado West sub-county, Kajiado County, Kenya. The research used survey design with a target population of 6085 students from public secondary schools. Based on Yamane's formula, the sample size of 375 students was selected by simple random sampling to participate in the study. Data were collected from this sample using standardized questionnaires; the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory (ACSBI-S). Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Independent t-Test and Correlation analysis. The findings indicated that there was statistically significant positive correlation between family cohesion and teenagers’ sexual behavior. Family cohesion had a positive correlation with sexual knowledge at r=.200; p-value= .000. Therefore an increase in family cohesion has a corresponding positive influence on the student sexual knowledge. Family cohesion on the other hand had a positive and significant correlation with sexual interests (r=0.135; p= 0.11). The findings imply that family cohesion could be used in regulating some of the sexual behavior domains of teenagers.
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    Relationship between Initial Trauma Processing Strategies and Posttraumatic Growth among Survivors of Garissa University Terrorist Attack, Kenya
    (The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2018-09) Asatsa Stephen; Dr. Sabina Mutisya; Dr. Bethwell Owuor
    The study investigated the predictive relationship between initial trauma processing strategies and posttraumatic growth among Garissa University terrorist attack survivors. The study was anchored on the organismic valuing theory after adversity, and adopted the correlation research design. A total sample of 200 participants was selected using simple random sampling technique. Quantitative data were collected using a standardized questionnaire, the21 item Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) and Initial Trauma Processing Scale (ITRS). Data were analyzed using univariate analysis, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis. The study found positive significant relationship between initial trauma processing strategies and posttraumatic growth among the survivors of Garissa University terrorist attack (R2=0.121, F=6.474, P≤0.05). The study further found that intrusion response and arousal response strategies were significantly and positively related to all the 6 posttraumatic growth domains: relating to others, personal strength, spiritual change, appreciation of life, new possibilities and overall posttraumatic growth. Cognitive alteration strategy was significant and positively related to 2 the posttraumatic growth domains: appreciation of life and total posttraumatic growth. Avoidance response strategy was not related to any of the posttraumatic growth domains. These findings may be relevant in designing future interventions for trauma survivors that are growth focused as complementary approaches to the existing crisis-focused counseling.
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    Relationship between Attachment Styles and Delinquent Behaviour among Adolescents in Foster Care Centers in Nairobi Kenya
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2022-09) Nyambega Lilian Nyaboke; Stephen Asatsa, PhD; Peter Koros, PhD
    The purpose of this study was to examine attachment styles and delinquent behaviours of children brought up in foster care centers in Njiru Ward, Kasarani Sub-County, Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was guided by the following research questions: What are the attachment styles and delinquent behavior patterns among foster children in Njiru Ward? What is the relationship between attachment styles and delinquency among foster children in Njiru Ward, Kasarani Sub-County? This study was informed by the Attachment Theory, Sub-culture and differential opportunity theories. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was used in this study. The target population included 19 foster care centers in Njiru Ward, with a total population of 1,117 and a sample of 336 (318 children, caretakers, and 6 directors) was selected for the study. Proportionate random sampling technique was used to select the children whereas purposive sampling was used for selecting the caretakers and directors in the foster care centers. The data was collected using questionnaires. Quantitative and qualitative approaches of analysis were used in the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analysing quantitative data. The study established that there was a statistical significant relationship between attachment styles and delinquent behaviour among children in foster homes in Njiru Ward. The study recommends assessment of attachment styles in children with delinquent problems to aid in understanding and establishing holistic correctional measures.
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    Emotional Intelligence and Adjustment to Community Living Among Consecrated Women Religious in Karen, Nairobi, Kenya
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2021-07) Lucia Mwikali. K.; Mutuku, Stephen Asatsa (PhD); Josephine Adibo (PhD)
    The Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic life (CICLSAL) views the issue of Consecrated Women abandoning religious life after initial stages of formation as an emotional crisis from remote disappointments caused by an inauthentic religious community living. Failure to adjust is experienced to cause anxiety related feelings among other mental health related challenges. The study used sequential explanatory mixed research design. The study equally used census to collect data from all the 138 participants of various programs in AOSK-Chem Chemi ya Uzima Institute as per 2020 enrollment. The study was guided by cognitive behavior theory by Aaron Beck, (1960), complemented by Emotional Intelligence theory by Daniel Goleman, (1995). A Modified Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (MEIQ) based on Daniel Goleman’s Emotional intelligence, as modified by Suzanne Farmer et al., (c.2013) was used to measure the level of Emotional Intelligence. Adjustment to community living was measured using modified sub-scales; Emotional Maturity, Satisfaction with life, and Self-Efficacy Scales. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis in order to establish the extent to which each of the variables contributed to adjustment in community living. The findings reveal the overall Emotional Intelligence to have had a strong significant positive correlation with the overall adjustment to community living among Consecrated Women Religious. The finding implies that an increase in emotional intelligence would lead to a corresponding increase in adjustment to community living. Emotional Maturity was found to be a significant function of Self-awareness and self-management while Life satisfaction was also found to have a significant relationship with social-awareness. Linear regression findings indicate significant weak positive relationship between adjustment to community living with social awareness. This reveals that Consecrated Women Religious need to improve their relational domain to enjoy smooth adjustment to community living.
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    Predictors of Emotional Intelligence among Academic Staff in Selected Universities in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2021-08) Maria Ntarangwe; Stephen Asatsa (PhD); Elijah Macharia Ndung’u (PhD)
    The academic staff in the university is a vital component in enhancement of academic affairs in any university. Due to the unending changes and dynamics that increase pressure and work related stress that academic staffs are subjected to, they are required to develop high levels of adaptability in their careers to enhance creativity so that they remain relevant. The study was based on Emotional intelligence theory and Career construction theory. A descriptive survey research design was used for this study. The target population was 403 academic staffs from selected universities in Nairobi County, Kenya. The total sample size was 201 respondents selected using two stage cluster sampling. Data was collected using Emotional Intelligence Scale EI (PcSc) scale developed by Mehta & Singh (2013). To establish internal consistency of the instrument, reliability was determined and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.824. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyze quantitative data using SPSS. The study had several findings: High means in indicators of emotional intelligence were recorded where the highest score was in self- awareness (Mean = 4.13 ± .53). This was followed by self- motivation (Mean = 3.85 ± .53), social skill was rated the third aspect of emotional intelligence (Mean = 3.83 ± .43) and the lowest was emotional regulation (Mean = 3.68 ± .55). The findings also indicated that there were differences in the mean score of Emotional intelligence across age, gender, education level, type of university and teaching experience. However the analysis of variance showed no significant differences in emotional intelligence in terms of age and gender. Moreover, only the mean of social skills had a significant difference in terms of level of education, experience and type of university. The major recommendation therefore given by the research was enhancement of self- awareness, self- motivation, emotional regulation and social skills strategies both by individuals and various organizations in order to improve job outcomes. This would be through trainings, guidance and counselling and team building. The researcher anticipated that the results from the study will facilitate the formation of an academic staff that are holistically intelligent.
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    (International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge, 2022-09) MARGARET W. NJOROGE, Ph.D; MARY MUKAMI NJOROGE, Ph.D; DR. STEPHEN ASATSA
    This study focuses on the dualism of the trauma surrounding a breast cancer diagnosis. The researchers explore the possibility that beyond psychological distress, survivors of breast cancer achieve growth in the five domains of change as described by Tedeschi and Calhoun; changes in relationships with others, increased personal strength, the realization of new possibilities, appreciation of life, and spiritual changes, (2004). By employing the posttraumatic growth inventory, the researchers were able to assess whether growth was achieved across each of the domains. Interviews and discussions offered personal statements that describe the changes, which as theorized by Tedeschi and Calhoun are “deeply personal” (2004). The findings from breast cancer survivors in Nairobi collaborate the theories and findings of many researchers as indicated in the literature review, that trauma can result in personal growth and development. Further, the researchers conclude and post recommendations on the findings that posttraumatic growth can be fostered by the psychosocial factors of optimism, social support, and redefining self.
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    Counseling as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Growth among the Garissa University Terrorist Attack Survivors.
    (African Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2018-08) Asatsa Stephen, Ph.D; Sr. Sabina Mutisya, Ph.D; Bethwell Owuor, Ph.D
    The study investigated the predictive relationship between counseling and posttraumatic growth among Garissa University terrorist attack survivors. The study was anchored on the organismic valuing theory after adversity, and it adopted the explanatory sequential mixed method research design. The study took a two-phase model starting with quantitative data collection and analysis followed by qualitative data collection and analysis. A total sample of 210 participants was selected using simple random sampling and extreme case sampling techniques. Quantitative data were collected using a standardized questionnaire; the 21-item Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). Qualitative data were collected using interview guides. Quantitative data were analyzed using univariate analysis multiple regression analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using themes and narratives from participants. The study found positive significant relationship between the number of counseling sessions attended and posttraumatic growth among the survivors of Garissa University terrorist attack. The study further found that participants who attended between 5 and 10 counseling sessions after the attack reported the highest posttraumatic growth while those who attended critical incident debriefing only reported the lowest growth. The participants who did not attend any form of counseling reported higher posttraumatic growth compared to those who attended critical incident debriefing only. These findings may be relevant in designing future interventions for trauma survivors that are growth focused as complementary approaches to the existing crisis-focused counseling. The findings further raised curiosity on the effectiveness of critical incident debriefing as a trauma intervention strategy which warrants further research on the construct.
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    The Attitudes of Postgraduate Counseling Students to Mandatory Personal Therapy in Selected Universities in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (ResearchGate, 2021-10) Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D; Dr.AD; Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D; Jacinta M. Adhiambo, Ph.D
    Personal Therapy is an important aspect of most counselors’ training worldwide. Being made mandatory can generate negative attitudes among postgraduate counseling students. This study thus investigated the attitudes of postgraduate counseling students to mandatory personal therapy in selected universities in Nairobi County, Kenya. A mixed methods concurrent design was adopted in the collection of both quantitative and qualitative data using online questionnaire and interview guides respectively. The target population was all 635 postgraduate (Masters and Doctorate) clinical psychology and counseling psychology students from four universities and university constituent colleges in Nairobi County, Kenya. The sample size was 255 consisting of 245 postgraduate students of clinical and counseling psychology, 5 counselor educators, and 5 professional counselors. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using frequencies and percentages while qualitative data was analyzed using content and thematic analysis. Findings of the study showed that majority (90%) of postgraduate counseling students had a positive attitude towards mandatory personal therapy; there was initial negative attitude of reluctance and resistance by 52% of the postgraduate counseling students; the postgraduate counseling students owe their change of negative attitudes to psychoeducation from their lecturers and therapists as well as therapeutic alliance formed with their therapists. It is, however, worrisome to find some postgraduate counseling students engage in unethical practice of disingenuousness such as obtaining a fake letter of personal therapy. It is more worrisome to find some professional therapists cooperating in such unethical practice. This needs to be critically and ethically addressed by the counseling training universities.
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    Relationship between Parenting Styles and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Public and Private Schools in Lamu County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2022-03) Pauline Mumina; Stephen Asatsa, PhD; Carolyne L.A Onyango
    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between parenting styles and academic performance of secondary school students in public and private schools in Lamu County, Kenya. The study employed an embedded mixed-method study design by combining correlational survey and phenomenological research designs. The study was informed by Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development. The target population was 648 Form two students and 25 headteachers. A sample of 247 students was selected using simple random sampling and 8 head teachers were selected through convenience sampling. The study used questionnaires, interview schedule, and document analyses to collect data. Quantitative data were analyzed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation analysis while qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that there is a non– significant weak negative relationship between authoritarian parenting style, authorititatve parenting style and academic performance of secondary school students. The study further established a negative significant relationship between permissive and uninvolved parenting styles and academic performance. The study recommended that Schools should organize forums for parents to enlighten them on parenting to address the gap existing in parenting. Such forums will enable parents to be warm, responsive, present, supportive and responsible to their children and in this process, embrace authoritative parenting which will enhance their children’s academic performance.
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    An Evaluation of the Crisis Counseling Offered to Garissa University Terrorist Attack Survivors, Kenya
    (International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 2018-11) Asatsa Stephen; Rosemary Obiagaeri Ekechukwu
    The study sought to investigate the subjective evaluation of crisis counseling that was offered to the survivors of Garissa University terrorist attack. The study was anchored on the organismic valuing theory after adversity, and adopted the phenomenological qualitative research design. A total sample of 20 participants was selected using extreme case sampling technique. Participants were screened using Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and those who scored the highest were considered for inclusion in the study. Data were collected using interview guides and analyzed using descriptive statistics, themes and narratives from participants. The study found that crisis counseling to a large extent helped participants accept the changes resulting from the terror attack, deal with denial, improve social skills, reinvest in self and process emotions. The results further showed that the crisis counseling offered to the Garissa University terrorist attack survivors had various shortcomings including not addressing family members of survivors, coping strategies and spiritual aspects arising from the attack. The crisis counseling also ignored screening, evaluation, other losses and follow up. These findings may be relevant in designing and enhancing crisis interventions for trauma survivors.
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    Adolescents' Social Networking and Self-Concept in Public Mixed Day Secondary Schools in Kajiado North Sub-County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2021-07) Kwara Rainer Abadali; Stephen Asatsa (PhD); Maria Ntaragwe
    Self-concept among adolescents is dynamic because of the struggle to find true identity while maintaining social acceptability. Social media may be seen as a social laboratory providing freedom to experiment with different presentations of self. The study examined the relationship between selected social networking sites (WhatsApp, Facebook, and Instagram) and the adolescents’ self-concept in public mixed day secondary schools in Kajiado County, Kajiado North Sub-county Kenya. An embedded mixed methods research design was employed to enable the researcher establish the relationship between the selected Social Networking Sites and self-concept among adolescents. Simple random sampling was employed to the selected 4 schools for this study. Probability sampling technique was used to select a sample of 265 respondents from the 4 selected secondary schools as sample size for the study. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings indicated that Facebook was the most preferred social media site among the adolescents. The self-concept level among the adolescents was at a moderate level indicating that the adolescents are aware of their self. The study found a negative weak correlation between WhatsApp and self-concept among adolescent; a negative weak correlation between Facebook and self-concept among adolescents and a negative weak correlation between Instagram and self-concept among adolescents. Self-concept among the selected respondents was not significantly affected by the selected social media applications. The study recommends harnessing of social media platforms as a socializing tool among adolescents since no significant correlation was found between social media and self-concept of adolescents despite the existing ban of use of mobile phones among this population in Kenya.
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    Mental health policy and system preparedness to respond to COVID-19 and other health emergencies: a case study of four African countries
    (South African Journal of Psychology, 2021-05) Tholene Sodi; Mahlatse Modipane; Kwaku Oppong Asante; Emmanuel Nii-Boye Quarshie; Dr. Stephen Asatsa; Julia Mutambara; Sibusiso Khombo
    As a result of a long colonial history and subsequent developmental and economic challenges, many African countries have struggled to put in place adequate policies, systems, and associated infrastructures to address the health and social needs of their citizens. With the COVID-19 pandemic threatening human lives and livelihoods, concerns are raised about the preparedness and readiness of health policies and systems in African countries to deal with these kinds of health calamities. More particularly, questions can be asked about the preparedness or even existence of mental health policies and associated systems to help individuals and communities in Africa to deal with the consequences of COVID-19 and other health emergencies. In this article, we analyse the existing mental health policies of four African countries paying attention to the capacity of these legislative provisions to enable psychology professionals to deal with psychosocial problems brought about by COVID-19. We use Walt and Gilson’s Policy Triangle Framework to frame our analysis of the existing mental health policies. In line with this conceptual framework, we review the role played by the different factors in shaping and influencing these mental health policies. We further explore the challenges and opportunities associated with existing legislation and mental health policies. We also reflect on the reports obtained from each of the four countries about the role that psychologists are playing to deal with the associated psychosocial problems. Based on our policy analysis and country reports, we highlight strengths and gaps in these policies and give recommendations on how mental health policies in these countries can be strengthened to respond to COVID-19 and future health emergencies.
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    The Role of Conformity to Masculinity Norms on Alcohol Use among Male Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Murang’a County, Kenya.
    (African Journal of Alcohol & Drug Abuse, 2022-12-31) Wairimu Agnes; Asatsa Stephen, PhD; Njiru Lucy, PhD; The Catholic University of Eastern Africa; Amref Intentional University
    Alcohol addiction is a problem that continues to affect the global population. Being male has been reported as higher risk to alcohol consumption compared to being female. This has been linked to many male related factors with limited studies done on the role of conformity to masculinity on alcohol consumption. Alcohol abuse is considerably rampant among teachers and has impacted negatively on teaching and learning especially in public schools where productivity of teachers is extremely low, giving rise to a worrying trend. This study sought to establish the relationship between conformity to masculinity norms and alcohol abuse among male teachers in Murang’a County, Kenya. The study adopted the correlational research design targeting 2642 male teachers employed by teacher service commission in secondary schools in Murang’a County with a sample size of 422 participants. The quantitative data was collected using standardized masculine behaviour scale (MBS) and alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) self administered questionnaires. The study found statistically significant correlation between conformity to masculinity norms and alcohol use disorders on all the domains of the Masculine Behavior Scale. This study may be significant to rehabilitation centers in developing and implementing men-centered interventions for treatment and control of alcohol consumption among patients.
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    Mandatory Personal Therapy and its Outcomes among Postgraduate Counseling Students in Selected Universities in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (African Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2021-12) Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD.; Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D; Jacinta Adhiambo, Ph.D
    Personal therapy is experienced as a mandatory requirement in many counselling and psychotherapy trainings worldwide with the view that it yields positive outcomes in terms of personal and professional developments. However, some counseling students think this is not beneficial in their training. This study therefore assessed mandatory personal therapy and its outcomes among postgraduate counseling students in selected universities in Nairobi, Kenya. The target population was all the 635 postgraduate counseling students at the Nairobi University, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Daystar University, and Tangaza University College. These universities were selected from the universities training clinical and counseling psychologists using stratified random sampling techniques. There were 245 counseling students who participated in survey, while ten counseling students, five professional counselors, and five counselor educators participated in the interview. The findings showed that 91.7% of the counseling students have positive perception of personal therapy as a mandatory requirement in their training; that personal therapy as a mandatory requirement contributed to their personal development in terms of self-awareness (94%) and general wellbeing (94%); it also contributed to their professional development where they witness theories in practice (85%), learned counseling skills (93%) and techniques (85%), used personal therapy for self-care (93%). However, there were inconsistencies in the students’ knowledge of the required sessions which they considered too much. It was recommended that there should be uniformity in the number of hours of personal therapy required across the universities involved in counselors’ and psychologists’ training.
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    An Assessment of Collaboration between Community-Based Informal Approaches and Government Formal Child Protection Structures in Mwingi Central-Sub County, Kitui County
    (, 2021-10) Titus Mutia Kithome; Dr. Wilkster M. Shanyisa; Dr. Stephen Asatsa
    Effective child protection framework requires a holistic approach where all actors are involved. This study was conceived to assess the level of collaboration between community–based informal approaches and government formal child protection structures in Mwingi central sub county. The study adopted mixed methods research design where data collection and analysis was done through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Both probability and non-sampling procedures were used to select a total of 433 respondents who included 399 adult members of the households, 24 children aged between 12-17 years and 10 key informants who participated in this study. The study was guided by the systems theory and the collecteddata was analyzed through thematic content analysis and descriptive statistics which involved the use of Statistical Packagefor Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The study results showed that there was poor close working relationship betweenstructured child protection systems and community-based informal structures and the working relationship between the twoapproaches was greatly hampered by factors like: low visibility of government officials within the study region, communitymistrust of government officials, and corruption by some government officials. The study recommends that there should morecollaborative effort in child protection for better results.
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    Role of Community-Based Informal Approaches in Child Protection in Mwingi Central Sub-County, Kitui County
    (, 2021-10) Titus Mutia Kithome; Dr. Wilkster M. Shanyisa; Dr. Stephen Asatsa
    The study was designed to investigate the role of community-based informal approaches in child protection in Mwingi Central Sub County, Kitui County. In order to address the above-stated objective, the study adopted a transformative worldview with an emphasis on mixed methods research design. The study used both probability and non-probability sampling methods, and 2 divisions, 5 locations, and 24 villages were chosen for the study using simple random sampling. Data was collected from a sample of 399 adult members of the households using questionnaires; 24 children aged 12-17 years (both in and out of school) through in-depth interviews’; and from 10 key informants. The study was guided by the systems theory and the collected data was analyzed through thematic content analysis descriptive statistics which involved the use of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The study results revealed that members of the community were more familiar with and preferred the use of community-based child protection approaches than the formal government child protection units. The study recommends that child protection practitioners should strive to close the gap between the formal and informal community-based child protection approaches to ensure that there is a cohesive approach to child protection.
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    Internet Use among University Students in Iringa Region, Tanzania: Trends, Threats and Mitigation
    (The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2018-07) Sr. Suzanna Kipapy; Sr. Dr. Florentina N. Ndeke; Asatsa Stephen
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of internet on university students` moral development in three universities in Iringa region-Tanzania. The study used convergent parallel mixed method design which is both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The researcher applied Moral development Theory by Lawrence Kohlberg in 1958. The sample size was 145 participants comprising of 120 students, 13 lecturers and 12 librarians. Data were collected using questionnaire and interview schedules. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were organized into themes and narratives from respondents. The findings showed that internet use was highly prevalent among University students in Iringa with 74% of the respondents reporting daily use. The highest content accessed was related to academics followed by romance most of which was accessed at night. The findings further identified plagiarism as a major vice fuelled by internet use. Major mitigation strategies against negative influence of internet identified included strong password adoption, counselling interventions, internet control policy and introduction of policy penalty codes.