Awareness in Application of Assistive Technology in Educational Instruction: A Psychological Perspective for Basic Education Learners with Visual Impairments


The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) 2010 posited that between 2-27% of learners in basic education schools in the world suffer from anxiety and self-esteem. This is much higher for the visually impaired learners, of which Assistive Technology is a contributor. It is on this premise that the study assessed the awareness of the application of Assistive Technology in educational instruction among learners with visual impairments in learning institutions within Nairobi Metropolitan. The study was guided by Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy and Michael Diamond’s Model. The study employed a mixed-method convergent parallel research design with a target population of 733 visually impaired learners and 70 staff members from 13 Visually Impaired learning institutions in the Nairobi metropolitan. Using a sample size of 320 respondents, stratified random sampling was used to select 5 principals, 23 teachers, and 292 learners. Data collection entailed questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions. Data obtained was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The study found that the majority of the visually impaired learners (25.3%) were at least somewhat aware of AT use for instructional reasons. The study revealed that a significant portion of 82(32.9%) were “extremely aware” of the application of the policy. The findings show that there were disparities in the awareness of the need to approve AT devices for use in a classroom context with the majority 86(34.5%) of the respondents being “not at all aware”.




Awareness, Assistive Technology, Educational Instruction, Learners, Visual Impairment


Mbugua, A. W., Ngari, S. M. & Ndung’u, E. M. (2021). Educational instruction: A psychological perspective for basic education learners with visual impairments. Journal of Research Innovation and Implications in Education, 5(4), 248 – 259.