Mathematical Modeling of the effects of gender-based stigmatization on COVID-19 virus transmission in Kenya

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Covid-19 has spread throughout the globe,killed millions of people,shattered economies of even the superpower countries and made people to change their way of living since it was discovered in china. Covid19 reached kenya on march 2020 when the ministry of health announced the first positive case in the city of Nairobi from an international traveller. Understanding the transmission dynamics and effective control measures have been crutial for researchers in creating mathematical models and determining the transmission potential of covid-19 in new areas.Our research aims to determine the effect of gender-based stigmatization in the spread of covid-19 and therefore we developed a (𝑺, 𝑬𝒎, 𝑬𝒇 , 𝑰𝒎, 𝑰𝒇 , 𝑻, 𝑸,𝑹) mathematical model of Covid-19 comprising of eight compartments; Susceptible(S),Exposed male (𝑬𝒎) ,Exposed female (𝑬𝒇) , Infected male(Im),Infected female(𝑰𝒇),Treatment(T),Stigmatized (Q)and Recovered (R). We used the next generation matrix approach to calculate the reproduction number 𝑹𝟎,explore the occurrence of equilibrium points, both disease-free and endemic, and analyze their stabilities.We used MATLAB to solve and generate the numerical solutions of the model differential equations.After interpretation the results show that increase of stigmatization,increases the infection rate of of covid -19 and decrease of stigmatization decreases the infection rate of covid-19 for both male and female.Hence we recommended that the government and relevant authorities should use this report to curb stigmatization through sensitization,awareness, speaking against negative stereotypes and providing the necessary support required by encouraging people to take tests and seek healthcare immediately they start showing covid symptoms.


Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Box 62157-00200, Nairobi-Kenya. *Corresponding Author: Kelvin Omori Obino


COVID-19 spread dynamics, mathematical modelling, epidemiological modelling, stigmatization


Kimathi G,Wainaina M,Kitetu V,Kaluki W,(2021) "Mathematical Modelling of COVID-19 Transmission in Kenya: A Model with Reinfection Transmission Mechanism", Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, vol. 2021, Article ID 5384481, 18 pages, .